Paper is one product that also comes from natural fibers. Even though it is not a handicraft, paper is a very useful product. How to produce paper from wood fiber material?

Natural fiber is a type of material derived from plants and even animals that are often used to be the raw material for various products. Some of them are water hyacinth stems, bamboo, banana midrib, coconut shell and other natural fibers. There are a variety of products produced from this material such as handicraft baskets made from water hyacinth.

In addition to handicrafts, there are also products that we use everyday that come from natural fibers, namely paper. Many say that paper comes from trees. This statement is not wrong, but rather paper is made from raw materials of wood fiber derived from trees. How to produce paper?

Paper History

Paper is made from tree, source : Wonderopolis
Paper is made from tree, source : Wonderopolis

Before we get into how to produce paper, it is interesting to learn the history. The existence of paper is a new revolution in the world of writing, which contributes a great meaning in world civilization. Before paper was discovered, the nations used to use stone, metal, animal skin and tablets from burned clay. This can be found from the Sumerian civilization, inscriptions from stone, wood, bamboo, animal skin or bones, silk, and even palm leaves arranged as found in the manuscripts of the archipelago several centuries ago.

Recorded in history is the Chinese civilization that donated paper for the World. It was Tsai Lun who discovered paper made from bamboo which was easily available throughout China in 101 AD. This discovery eventually spread to Japan and Korea as the spread of the Chinese nations to the east and the development of civilization in the region although at first the way of making paper was a very secret matter.

In the end, the technique of making paper fell into the hands of the Arabs during the Abbasids. Especially after the defeat of the Tang Dynasty troops in the Battle of Talas in 751 AD. Prisoners of war taught Arabs how to make paper so that in the Abbasid era came the centers of the paper industry in both Baghdad and Samarkand and other industrial cities. Then spread to Italy and India, then Europe, especially after the Crusades and the fall of Grenada from the Moors into the hands of the Spaniards and throughout the world.

In Indonesia, the first paper was made in Ponorogo since the 7th century made from local tree bark. The paper that was made in Ponorogo was used as writing for Buddhist monks who studied Buddhism in the Srivijaya kingdom because it was suitable for the tropics. But despite being able to make paper, Ponorogo did not write events on paper, but instead on a copper plate on the findings of the 9th century in Taji Village about Buddhist religious events.

In addition, paper made by Ponorogo is used as a medium for painting wayang beber, which is the forerunner of wayang kulit. When Islam was in Indonesia, paper made by Ponorogo was used as writing the Holy Qur’an in the Tegalsari Islamic Boarding School which was taken care of by Kyai Ageng Hasan Besari.

Paper making material

Based on its history, the paper making materials consist of several. The following are:

  1. Paper is generally made from wood raw materials. The wood used is wood that has a lot of fiber content and some has little water content
  2. Bamboo, Asian nations especially China, Korea and Japan make paper from bamboo tree trunks. Bamboo is a raw material that is easily obtained by them because the climate and the area is a good supporter for bamboo species. Bamboo is the material of choice because besides being easily obtained it is also cheaper than the price
  3. Papyrus, Papyrus trees are trees that grow and can be used by the Egyptians as raw material for making paper
  4. Skin, leather are also used in some circles for raw materials in making paper. Commonly used is the type of sheepskin because the material is also easy to obtain, although not as much as from raw wood or bamboo.

How to produce paper

Paper is used as a media for writing because of wood fiber material. Wood fiber material easily absorbs ink and makes ink not erased. So, anything written using ink will not be easily erased. This is what makes people write on paper. What is the process of turning wood fiber into paper?

1. Pulp making

Timber taken from production forests then cut into pieces is known as logs. The log is stored in a shelter several months before it is processed with the aim to soften it. After that the bark is peeled off with a peeling bark machine.

Wood is cut into small pieces (chips) by a chipping machine. In this process the appropriate chip size is taken and the inappropriate one is reprocessed. The chips are cooked in a digester to separate wood fibers (the material used to make paper) with lignin.

There are two kinds of cooking processes, namely Chemical Pulping Process and Mechanical Pulping Process. The product of this digester is called pulp. This pulp is processed into paper on a paper machine (paper machine).

Paper, source : CellMark
Paper, source : CellMark

2. Paper Making Process

Pulp is processed in the Stock Preparation section. This section serves to formulate raw materials such as: adding coloring to paper (dye), adding retention substances, adding fillers (to fill the pores between wood fibers), etc. The material that comes out of this part is called stock (a mixture of pulp, chemicals, and water)

Stock preparation goes into cleaning with a tool called Cleaner. From the cleaner stock into the Headbox (heater) which functions to form a sheet of paper (forming a formation) above the Fourdrinier Table.

Its function is to dispose of water that is in stock (dewatering). The results that come out are called the web (wet paper). The density is around 20%.

Then enter the Press Part serves to remove water from the web so that the solid content reaches 50%. The workings of this press part machine are paper entering between two rotating rolls. One roll of the top is pressured so that the water comes out of the web. Finally, the Dryer functions to dry the web so that the water content reaches 6%.

3. Finishing Stage

Finally, dry paper is wrapped around a large roll (paper roll), which will be further processed depending on the final use. The paper is flattened and compacted further by passing through metal rollers called calendars.

Here it is, some interesting reviews about how to produce paper, starting from its history, the making of the material to the manufacturing process. Hopefully it can be an interesting insight for you. Stay tuned for information on crafts, natural fibers and tips on the harmoni kreasi website.